Israël pourrait être dans une situation de pénurie d’eau si des mesures urgentes ne sont pas prises dans le pays.


Israël est un petit pays avec une superficie d’environ 22.000 km2, soit vingt cinq  fois plus petit que la France métropolitaine, et sa population compte 8 millions d’habitants. Alors que les ressources en eau ont été suffisantes pour couvrir tous les besoins d’Israël jusqu’en 1975, depuis le pays connaît un déficit croissant. Ce début d’année ne présage rien de bon avec une situation de sécheresse qui inquiète bon nombre d’observateurs.

« Janvier a enregistré à peine une goutte de pluie , et février n’a pas été beaucoup mieux , malgré la pluie de la semaine dernière », a déclaré Avshalom Vilan , président de la Fédération de l’agriculture israélienne , un groupe représentant les agriculteurs et les familles agricoles . À moins d’un « miracle climatique » a t-il dit , Israël sera bientôt dans une situation de pénurie d’eau très grave. La situation est si grave, dit-il , que l’eau stockée généralement distribuée en Avril aux agriculteurs dans le nord d’Israël est déjà utilisée , et tout cela uniquement en raison d’un manque de précipitations naturelles .

Heureusement, il y a quelque chose que le gouvernement peut faire pour remédier à la pénurie : Activer toutes les usines de dessalement d’eau d’Israël . En raison de la bonne pluviométrie de l’année dernière , les usines de dessalement sont en cours d’exécution à seulement  moitié de leur capacité . À pleine capacité , a déclaré Avshalom Vilan , ils pourraient fournir 150 millions de mètres cubes d’eau , assez pour permettre à Israël de traverser la crise actuelle .

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Les autorités préfèrent évidemment utiliser l’eau naturelle car utiliser de  l’eau dessalée sous entendrait de devoir payer les coûts de productions et ce sont les consommateurs qui finiront par payer l’addition. » Le manque d’eau pourrait être très problématique pour le consommateur israélien « , a déclaré Vilan . «Nous devons prendre des décisions maintenant ».

Par Paula Chiche pour Tel Avivre

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